attana - sensor technologies

Frequently Asked Questions

- What kind of biosensors are available?
Attana currently offers the Attana Cell 200, the Attana A200 and the Attana A100.

-What is QCM?
QCM is the abbrevation for Quartz Chrystal Microbalance. Please see our dedicated section for an explanation of the technology.
- What is the fastest association and slowest dissociation the systems can measure?
Attana systems measure affinites in the pM range. The limitations will depend on the application but a guideline:
ka < 5*105 1/Ms
kd 5*10-5 to 5*10-2 1/s
However this range can be extended with assay optimization.

- Do the instruments have cooling options, temperature regulation and mixing/stirring of samples?
Yes, we provide an optional cooling unit and the temperature can be set between 4-40°C for your experiment. In addition samples can be mixed before injection over the sensor chip.

- What is the throughput of the Attana instruments?
Attana provides fully automated systems that allow for unattended runs of 192 different samples and over 700 sample injections in the same experiment.

- What do you mean by "biological relevance" and "biologically relevant data"?
With Attana's biosensors it is possible to perform experiments in an environment strongly resembling the molecules' natural environment. Results are biologically relevant when its possible to get as close to nature as possible. The Attana biosensors can measure interactions label-free, in a continuous flow during regulated temperatures, both at the cell surface of adherent and suspension cells and in serum containing samples.

- Do you have to dilute serum containing and crude samples to be injected in the Attana instrument?
No, there is no need to dilute or clear crude and serum containing samples before injections. Attana's biosensors can perform experiments using cell lysates, conditioned supernatants, periplasmic extracts, tissue homogenates and up to 100% serum.

- Using crude or serum containing samples, how can clogging and unspecific binding be prevented?

Attana fluidics have been specifically designed to handle crude samples without clogging. Additionally, Attana has developed a proprietary surface coating LNB, generating minimal background binding for crude and serum containing samples. No extra buffers or washing steps are necessary in the Attana systems.

- Does Attana have several different surface coatings of the chips?
Yes, we provide several different surface coatings for the sensor chips. For more information about which coating is recommended for what application, see our products page.

- Does Attana have a specific surface coating of the chips for cells?
Yes, Attana has developed a proprietary surface coating compatible with the surface of normal tissue culture flasks. The cells will behave as they normally do, with their natural surface expression profile and morphology while performing experiments.

- How long can you use each chip?
The limitation is not in the chip but rather in the molecules/cells that are being immobilized. However in order to generate reproducible and reliable data, we recommend a new chip for each experiment.

- Why can Attana run kinetics using cells?
Attana's QCM technology measures mass and allows the study of interactions to cells since the response is linear even far from the sensor surface. Please see our dedicated section for explaining the technology.

- Is it possible to run cells in suspension?
Yes, immobilizing a capture molecule such as an antibody or lectin will allow for capture of the suspension cells at the sensor surface.

- Do you have specific Attana courses?
Yes, please see our dedicated services section for details regarding training sessions, covering both biochemical and cell-based systems.

- I need help with assay development, can I contact you?
Of course, please contact the Attana support team

- What information do you have regarding protocols, published materials and application notes?

For selected publications please visit: Publications.
For application notes see: Application Notes.

If your question was not covered here, please contact Attana directly for further assistance